(i) animal charcoal
(ii) carbon black
(i)The property of elements are a periodic function of their atomic number
(ii)Elements are arranged in the periodic table according to the order of increasing in their atomic weight.
Periodicity can be defined as the trend or recurring variation in element properties with increasing atomic number.
using mole = no. of atoms/avogadro's constant
0.5 = No. of atoms/6.023 × 10²³
no. of atoms = 0.5×6.02 × 10²³ = 3.012 × 10²³ atom
Faraday's first law of electrolysis state that the chemical deposition due to the flow of current through an electrolyte is directly proportional to the quantity of electricity (coulombs) passed through it.
2O²^- + 9^e --->2O²
no. of electron = 4
G.M.V = 22.4dm³.
F = 96500C
Mole = Q/n,f
Mole = 20300/4 × 96500
Mole = 20300/386000
Mole = 0.05mol
Recall; = vol/G.M.V
0.05 = vol/22.4
vol = 0.05 × 22.4
vol = 1.12dm³
OH ----> OH + e^-
(i) No. of electron in Y = 16
(ii) No. of mass number = 16 + 18 = 34
The basicity of an acid is the number of replaceable hydrogen ions N+ in one molecule of the acid.
(i) H3p04 ---> basicity = 3
(ii) HC00H ---> basicity = 1
(iii) H2S04 ---> basicity = 2
-Temperature of the reacting system
-Pressure of the reacting system
-Concentration of the reacting system
-Nature of reactants
-Concentration/Pressure of reactants
-Surface area of reactants
In a tabular form
Methyl orange, Phenolphthalein
Under colouric acid:
Under colour of endpoint:
Under colour in base:
Under suitable for:
Strong acid and weak base,
Weak acid and strong base
1S, 2S, <-2P->
↑↓ ↑↓ ↑↑↑
1S, 2S, <-2P->
↑↓ ↑↓ ↑↓↑↓↑
1S, 2S, 2P, 3S, 3P
↑↓ ↑↓ ↑↓↑↓↑↓ ↑↓ ↑
(i) Heat is evolved liberating hydrogen gas
(ii) Decolourization of purple KMn04 with deposit of sulphur
(iii) Black residue of carbon due to dehydration
(i) Glucose is used as an immediate source of energy for sick people and sportsmen
(ii) It is used in the manufacture of sweets.
Cl2(g) + 2NaOH(aq) + Nacl + H2O(l)
3Cl2(aq) + 6NaOH(aq) + 5Nacl(aq) + 3H2O(l)
Green to Brown
(i)Hard water tastes better due to dissolved minerals in it
(ii)Hard water helps snails and crabs to make their shells
(i)Exhaust of power plants and vehicles
(ii)Gases from chemical warfare
(i)Starch ---> Iodine
Fats and oil ---> Sudan III
(i)Standard NaOH cannot be accurately prepared because it is deliquescent
(ii)Standard H2SO4 cannot be accurately prepared because it is hydroscopic. Both absorb moisture from the atmosphere.
(i)Boyl’s law states that the volume of a given mass of gas is inversely proportional to its pressure, provided the temperature remains constant.
(ii)V1/T1 = V2/T2 i.e V2 = V1T2/T1
= 400 x (273+150)/(273+30)
Volume at 50°c = 400x323/303 = 426.4cm^3
(I) Water is necessary for corrosion to take place whereas burning is different in the presence of water.
(II) Boiling takes place at a specific temperature called boiling point whereas evaporation takes place at all temperatures.
A concentrated solution is one containing large amount of the solute dissolved in water.
(i) The positions of the ions in the electrochemical series.
(ii) The concentration of the ions in the electrolyte.
(iii) The nature of the electrode.
R.M.M = 2[Al] + 3[(S) + 4(O)]
= 2(27) + 3[32 + 4(16)]
= 54 + 3
Propane -1,2,3 -triol and salt.
(i) Soapless detergents do not form scum with hard water, soaps do.
(ii) Soaps are biodegradable; certain soapless detergents are not and hence cause pollution of water ways.
OH and COOH
v1p1=v2p2 ie v2 = v1p1/p2
= 300×760/800 = 285cm³
Change = +13 - 10 = +3
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