(Answer ONLY TWO Questions From This Section)
UDHR stand for 'Universal Declaration of Human Rights'
(i) Conduct investigation into cases of human rights violation: The declaration in Human Rights Defenders emphasises the check on human rights violation by outlining the obligation to conduct a "prompt and impartial investigation" or inquiry's whenever there's "reasonable ground" to believe that a violation has occurred. States have the obligation to conduct exhaustive and impartial investigation into allegations of human rights violation in order to identify and bring to justice the perpetrators.
(ii) Take all necessary measures to protect human rights defenders against violation, discrimination and retaliation: In carrying out their works, human rights defenders need to be assured of effective protection against violence, retaliation or discrimination. The increasing need for such protection has been illustrated by numerous attacks on human rights defenders in recent years.
(iii) Promote human rights through education and training: Human rights training and education are crucial for promoting a better understanding of human rights within a society. Under various human rights treaties states have a duty to adopt measures to promote human rights through teaching, education and training.
(i) Right to life
(ii) Right to personal liberty
(iii) Right to fair hearing
(i) contesting election:a citizen has the right to contest for any political offices any time he wishes to do so
(ii) voting in election: citizens have the right to cast their votes for the candidate of their choice without interference from any body
(iii) Belonging to a political party: it's the political right of a citizen to belong to any political parties of his choices.
(iv) Holding of public offices: this allow individual to contribute immensely in the areas of decision making.
(Answer ONLY TWO Questions From This Section)
Rule of law is defined as the absolute supremacy of the law over everyone, both the leaders, the led and all proceedings in a state. It involves coordinating all social interactions, regulating peoples life and property, practicing the art of governance and civil conducts through the provisions of law
(i) Promotes the freedom of the judiciary: One of the advantages of Rule of Law is that it promotes the freedom of the Judiciary. One feature of the modern definition of Rule of Law is the guarantee of the freedom of the judiciary. This means that wherever the Rule of Law operates in the real modern sense of the word, the freedom of the judiciary is enhanced.
(ii) Preserves the constitution: Another advantage of the operation of Rule of Law is that it helps to preserve the constitution of the land. The constitution is ultimately the law of the land and Rule of Law ensures the certainty of the law. This being so, as the Rule of Law operates, the constitution is also preserved.
(iii) Enhances the freedom of the individual: Where Rule of Law operates, governments are expected to allow the expression of divergent views in the society. The government is also expected to ensure the freedom of the mass media, which includes the radio, television, newspapers and lately the news portals and social media.
(iv) Promotes qualitative life: Where Rule of Law operates to the letter, the quality of life of the citizens is greatly enhanced. This is because the modern definition of Rule of Law encourages the creation of the social conditions that would make it possible for the citizens to enjoy the social order. Once this is achieved, the quality of life of the individual would be enhanced.
Popular participation: this can be defined as the process where by individuals get themselves involves in the political activities and in the decision making of their country.
(i) good governance: when the govt in power provide good governance to the citizens , it will enable the citizens to be interested in participating in their political system
(ii) Free and fair election: if there is free and fair election that devoid of harassment and intimidation of voters , it will encourage the citizens to be interest in the political system of their country
(iii) Rule of law: supremacy of the constitution that will guarantee level playing ground for both the voters and candidates may encourage citizens to take in their political system
(iv) Failure of the past govt: people may want to participate in govt because past govt failed the people in the areas of provision of amenities, so citizens may be encouraged to come out and vote bad govt out of office.
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