Tuesday 25th August 2020
Biology 2 (Essay) – 9:30am –11:10am
Biology 1 (objective) – 11:10am –12:00noon
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SECTION A: answer Two questions only.
SECTION B: answer One question only.
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When the head moves or changes position, the endolymph fluid in the semi-circular canals moves and stimulates the nerve endings. The nerve endings then transmit the impulses through vestibular to the cerebellum of the brain where the new position at the head is interpreted and the appropriate responses sent to the muscular system to maintain body balance
The middle ear in human can be split into three parts; external, middle and inner. The middle ear lies within the temporal bone and extends from the tympanic membrane to the lateral wall of the inner ear. The main function of the middle ear is to transmit vibrations from the tympanic membrane to the inner ear via the auditory ossicles.
Deficiency disease is a disease caused by a lack of essential dietary elements and especially a vitamin or mineral. It distorts the normal functioning of the human body thereby giving rise to diseases. These diseases affect the organ, tissue and vital system of the human body.
-Nutrient Deficiency Disease
(i) Night blindness.
(ii) Pellagra(skin and digestive problem)
(iii) Beri-Beri(wasting of muscles, paralysis, stunted growth.
(i) Eating a meal rich in vitamin A(retinol) eg Liver, egg, fish, milk, fresh vegetables.
(ii) Foods are rich in yeast, liver, milk, eggs and whole grain.
(iii) Eating a meal rich in liver, groundnuts, yeast and rice.
(iv) Eating a meal rich in folic acid eg leafy vegetables, liver.
(v) Eating of fresh citrus fruits.
Starch is a tuber of yam is carried out as thus:
-By adding a few drops of dilute iodine solution on a raw piece of yam.
-After this, it would be observed that the colour will change blue-black confirming the presence of starch.
Glucose in orange fruit requires:
-Putting a small quantity of glucose solution in a test tube, with a few drops of Benedict solution (about 2%).
-The mixture is boiled for 4-6minutes.
-After this, a brick-red or orange precipitate is seen confirming the presence of glucose.
(i) Disease: Cholera
Causative organism: Bacterium (Vibro cholerae)
Control: Keeping environment clean
(ii) Disease: Sleeping sickness
Causative organism: Trypanosome
Vector: tsetse fly
Control: use of antiseptic
(iii) Disease: Malaria
Causative organism: Plasmodium (protozoa)
Vector: Female anopheles mosquito
Control: Draining of swamps
(iv) Disease: Ringworm
Causative organism: Trichophyton and Microsporum
Control: Keeping of skin clean and dry
Salting is the dusting of farm products with table salt
Irradiation is the drying of some crops or products using the heat from the sun
Smoking is the drying of some farm products over the smoke of a naked fire
Independent assortment of genes states that a pair of alleles/genes of contrasting character segregates independently and combines randomly/distribute itself with either of another pair of alleles/ genes. Hence, during the formation of gamete, the distribution of one pair of an allele does not affect the distribution of other allelic pair.
Blood group O can only exist in homozygous form because it has no antigen on its red blood cell while blood group A can exist both in homozygous and heterozygous form because of the presence of antigen on their blood cell. Therefore they exhibit co-dominance.
Class of vertebrate| Example
Pisces | catfish
Amphibians | toad
Reptiles | lizard
Aves | bird
Mammals | man
External fertilization is a mode of reproduction in which a male organism's sperm fertilizes a female organism's egg outside of the female's body.
Internal fertilization occurs most often in land-based animals, although some aquatic animals also use this method. There are three ways that offspring are produced following internal fertilization.
(i)the foetus will not get oxygen
(ii)the foetus will not get nutrients.
(iii)waste products from your baby's blood will not be removed
Competition in feeding among organisms for scarce resources leads to the death of weaker members of the species and the reproduction of the stronger members, leading to a dynamic equilibrium that balances the rate of death to the rate of birth.
(i) Problem of Wave
(ii) Effects of temperature
(iii) The salinity of the Marine
Moisture helps in the germination of seeds by helping to activate the metabolic activities needed for germination, dissolved oxygen content in moisture acts is very beneficial to the biochemical process involved in germination.
Viable seeds are healthy and contain the organic requirements for healthy germination, and is most times resistant to harsh weather conditions, and lack of nutrients.
Light energy is considered a limiting factor in the production of food by autotrophs because photosynthesis which is the main process by which autotrophs produce food cannot take place in the absence of light. The energy from light is solely responsible for the process of photosynthesis.
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